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Social Reform Procuratorial

Release time: August 19, 2019

The Fourth National Procuratorial Work Conference in 1958 made social reform procuratorial work an important task of the procuratorial organs in light of the struggle situation at the time. The meeting pointed out: "Transforming the majority of the land, the rich, the counter, the bad, and the middle right is a big thing. It is of great significance to resolve the contradictions between the enemy and ourselves, turn negative factors into positive factors, and defend the general line." On the issue of dictatorship, in addition to cracking down on the current situation, the task of reforming the "Five Kinds of Elements" and the task of social reform are even more prominent. " Regarding the tasks of the social reform inspection, "mainly for the land, the rich, the counter, the bad, and the right is to deny the crimes and accept the reform and carry out the inspection; and also to inspect the implementation of policies and laws in the transformation work; To prevent not talking about strategy. " The meeting also pointed out that the scope of social reform work is very broad, and procuratorial organs can only implement procuratorial work in a focused manner. All grass-roots procuratorial organs should choose a typical model and have a detailed understanding, especially the experience of how to conduct social reform procuratorial work.

According to the spirit of the Fourth National Procuratorial Work Conference, in 1959, procuratorial organs at all levels in Shaanxi made social reform procuratorial work one of the centers of procuratorial work throughout the year, and made great efforts to catch it. Prior to April, key experiments were generally carried out in various places, and after April, they were fully launched. The procuratorial branches held on-site meetings around August to check and summarize the social reform procuratorial work in the previous section and exchanged experiences, thereby promoting the further development of this work. The procuratorial organs inspected a total of 13,518 production teams (52.4% of the total number of production teams) during the year. According to statistics from 7 procuratorate branches and municipal procuratorates, through social transformation inspections, 3,198 people who misclassified the "Five Types of Molecules" were corrected, accounting for 1.8% of the total number of "Five Types of Molecules," and 2,857 people were missed, which accounted for the total number of "Five Types of Molecules" 1.5%. The counter-revolutionary Wang Keming, who had missed out on the Zhongba pipe area in Lueyang County, had been a pseudo-insurer for many years before the founding of New China. He also participated in counter-revolutionary riots in 1957 and was not dealt with. Since 1959, many rumors have been used to confuse the public and vilify cadres. Local grass-roots organizations have been treating contradictions among the people. After the procuratorate inspected and found out the facts, after discussion among the masses, they unanimously agreed to put on the hat of "revolutionary elements" and submit them to the masses for supervision and reform. The Xianyang City Procuratorate inspected the Diaotai Commune and found that the young students of the fourth production team in the second management zone, Tong Zhongdao, were classified as "bad elements" because they often talked back to the production team cadres and controlled for more than two years, and immediately corrected them.

After the Eighth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, procuratorial organs at all levels combined with the work of amnesty of criminals and cooperated with relevant departments to carry out a strong political offensive among the "five-type elements" and further implemented reform measures for the "five-type elements". Not only has crime been prevented and prevented to a great extent, but internal disintegration has also been greatly promoted. The vast majority of the "five types of molecules" have turned to the good side. The number of people who perform well has continued to rise, while the number of people who have performed badly has continued to decline. According to statistics at the end of the four counties including Hanzhong, Shangluo, Yan'an, and Fengxiang, the number of good performers increased from 22.6% in the previous year to 35.1%. Poor performance and destructive activities decreased from 22.2% in the previous year to 13.8%. The number of criminal cases in the "Five Classes" has decreased by 60.2% compared with the previous year. Through social reform inspections in Fengxiang County, the county's "five types of elements" reported 1462 clues of various crimes and crimes, surrendered 5 long and short guns, 242 rounds of bullets, 25 grenades, 21 kg of smoke, 1412 reaction books and certificates. . The Shangxian Procuratorate found 12 omissions and 19 mis-plans in the Shangzhen district of the county, and all of them were corrected. At the same time, 21 people who reported irregularities and sabotage activities in the "Five Kinds of Elements" were launched to deal with them separately.

In 1960, in cooperation with the relevant departments to review the "Five Types of Molecules", through the review, 4255 "Five Types of Molecules" who resisted transformation and destruction activities were cracked down, of which 749 were approved for arrest. 3810 people of all kinds of impure molecules were cleaned up from the key parts of the grassroots. Corrections were made to 1168 people who made wrong plans and 1422 who missed them. At the same time, for the performance of 1,066 people, it is recommended to remove the hat, and for 576 people who have removed the hat and carried out sabotage activities, it is recommended to put on the hat again.

In April and May 1961, the Provincial Procuratorate sent a working group to cooperate with the Pucheng County Procuratorate and the Public Security Bureau to inspect the social transformation work of the six production brigades affiliated to the Mahu District of the Sun Town Commune of Pucheng County. The district has a total population of 7042 people, and the original "five types of molecules" 133 people, accounting for 1.89% of the total population. Sixty-five people have taken off their hats, changed their composition, and become regular members, and 68 haven't removed their hats. The inspection concluded that the social reform work basically implemented the policy of “combining government control with mass supervision” and “combining supervision with labor and political ideology and education”, which enabled the vast majority of “five types of elements” to be reformed to varying degrees. At the same time, the following problems were found:

(1) Remove the cap and change the composition too much. From 1956 to 1960, a total of 65 people removed caps and changed their composition, accounting for 40.9% of the total number of 159 people who originally controlled the "five types of molecules." After inspection by the working group person by person, 13 people belonged to removing the cap and changing the composition improperly, accounting for 20% of the total number of removing the cap and changing the composition.

(2) Missed 11 people. It accounted for 15.9% of the total number of "five types of molecules" at that time.

(3) There is a problem of misplanning in some places. We will treat some issues that are inherently contradictory among the people in the wrong way. For example, Wei Shouheng of the Weicun Brigade, a poor peasant, has been a cadre at the grassroots level. In 1957, due to a small amount of corruption and collective stealing of 1100 kg of food and 1100 kg of jujube, he was sentenced by the Interim Court to "bad elements" for 1 year In January 1960, the expiration of the control period, the production team submitted the materials twice, demanding that the control be lifted and the hat of the "bad elements" be removed, but it was still controlled at the time of inspection. The Sanshan Brigade, He Jinshan, was born as a hired worker. In 1955, he slaughtered two cows and evaded taxes and was sentenced to 2 years in prison for selling meat. After the return of his sentence in 1957, he did not behave irregularly, but he has always been treated with contradiction between the enemy and himself. Until 1961, he still wore a "bad element" hat.

(4) Inadequate supervision and reform, "five types of elements" and counter-revolutionary social foundation usurped grassroots leadership. Since 1960, the total management area has usurped 22 people from the "five types of elements" of grassroots leadership and key personnel departments, including 5 production team leaders, 5 accountants, cafeteria administrators, and breeders. After repeated urging, some people still refused to change, or not changed.

(5) The social reform work did not mobilize the masses. Some departments of the "package organization" have not been established, and some have not held a meeting since its establishment. The person in charge of the "package organization" and the public security personnel have not conducted supervision and inspection.

The Provincial Procuratorate Working Group investigated the performance of the "five types of elements" in the above-mentioned areas, and conducted a comprehensive investigation of the performance of the released prisoners in this area, and found that the problem was very serious. There are 17 persons released from prison in this area, one performing well, accounting for 5.9%; six performing generally, accounting for 35.3%; six performing irregularly, accounting for 35.3%; four with disruptive activities, accounting for 23.5 %. The last two categories totaled 10 people, accounting for 58.8%. In response to actual problems, the working group held discussions with grassroots organizations and put forward suggestions for improvement.

After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 1978, under the leadership of party committees and governments at all levels, land, rich, anti, and bad elements (most of the rightists took off their hats in the 1960s) have been reviewed and reviewed and corrected. After the review, the vast majority were taken off their hats, and the procuratorial organs no longer carried out social reform inspections.



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